Active Obedience - Active obedience is Jesus' actively
fulfilling all the law of God.
Agnosticism - The belief
that it is not possible to know if there is or is not a God.
The teaching that there is no literal 1000 year
reign of Christ as referenced in
Revelation 20. It
sees the 1000 year period spoken of in Revelation 20 as figurative.
Instead, it teaches that we are in the millennium now, and that at the
return of Christ (1 Thess.
4:16 - 5:2) there
will be the final judgment and the heavens and the earth will then be
destroyed and remade (2 Pet.
Angel - Angel means messenger. Angels are created (Psalm 148:2,5;
Col. 1:16), non-human, spirit beings (Heb. 1:14). They are immortal (Luke 20:36), innumerable (Heb. 12:22), invisible (Num. 22:22-31), sexless (Matt. 22:30), and do the
will of God (Psalm 103:20).
These angels have a ministry to believers. They guide (Gen. 24:7,
40), protect (Psalm 34:7), and comfort (Acts 27:2,
24). There are good angels (Gen. 28:12;
Psalm 91:11) and bad
angels (2 Pet. 2:4;
- The teaching that when a person
dies, he is annihilated, most often this doctrine is applied to the
wicked, thereby negating eternal
- Anthropomorphic -
Manifesting in human form. It is from
the Greek "anthropos" meaning "man" and "morphe" meaning "form." In
biblical theology, God is described in anthropomorphic terms; that
is, in human terms with human attributes.
For example, God has hands and feet in
and is loving (1 John 4:8).
A figure who opposes God. The word is
used to describe a spirit of rebellion against God, "...the spirit of
the Antichrist..." (1 John 4:3) and of a specific
future person identified as the man of lawlessness (2 Thess. 2:3). He actively
opposes Christ (2 Thess.
2:4) and when he arrives, he will be able to perform miracles (2 Thess. 2:9). Some
believe he will be an incarnation of Satan and as such will be able to
deceive many. His number is 666 (Rev. 13:18). A further
possible description of him might be found in
- To give the defense, to defend the Christian faith." but sanctify
Christ as Lord in your hearts, always being ready to make a defense to
everyone who asks you to give an account for the hope that is in you,
yet with gentleness and reverence," (1 Pet. 3:15).
There are five main tenets of
Arminianism: 1) God elects or reproves on the basis of foreseen
faith or unbelief, 2) Christ died for all men and for every man,
although only believers are saved, 3) Man is so depraved that divine
grace is necessary unto faith or any good deed, 4) This grace may be
resisted, 5) Whether all who are truly regenerate will certainly
persevere in the faith is a point which needs further investigation
- The position that there is no God, or that God is denied.
- Atonement -
To atone means to make amends, to
repair a wrong done. Biblically, it means to remove
sin. The Old Testament atonements offered by the
high priest were temporary and a foreshadow of the real and final
atonement made by Jesus. Jesus atoned for the sins of the world (1 John 2:2). This atonement
is received by faith (Rom. 5:1;
An immersion or sprinkling of water
that signifies one's identification with a belief or cause. In
Christianity it is the believer's identification with Christ in His
death, burial, and resurrection (Rom. 6:4-54). It is done in the
name and authority (Acts 4:7)
of Christ with the baptismal formula of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19). It does not save us
(1 Pet. 3:21). However,
it is our obligation, as believers, to receive it.
- Blasphemy -
Speaking evil of God or denying Him
some good which we should attribute to Him. Blasphemy of the Holy
Spirit is stating that Jesus did his miracles by the power of the
12:22-32) and is an unforgivable sin (Mark
3:28-30). Blasphemy arises out of pride (Psalm 73:9,11), hatred (Psalm 74:18), injustice (Isaiah 52:5), etc. Christ
was mistakenly accused of blasphemy (John 10:30-33).
A system of Christian interpretation initiated by John Calvin. It
emphasizes predestination and salvation.
- The position that the charismatic gifts have ceased with the death
of the apostles.
- Canon -
This is another word for scripture.
The Canon consists of the 39 books of the Old Testament and the 27
books of the New. The Canon is closed which means there is no more
revelation to become Scripture.
gifts - The special spiritual
gifts given to the church. They are for edifying and building up the
church. They are mentioned in
1 Cor. 12, and
1 Cor. 14: Word of wisdom, word of
knowledge, faith, healing, miracles, prophecy, distinguishing of
spirits, tongues, interpretation of tongues.
- Christ -
Christ is a title. It is the New Testament
equivalent of the Old Testament term "messiah" and means "anointed one."
It is applied to Jesus as the anointed one who delivers from sin.
Jesus alone is the Christ.
- Church -
The word is used in two senses: the
visible and the invisible church. The visible church consists of all
the people that claim to be Christians and go to church. The
invisible church is the actual body of Christians; those who are
The Lord's Supper (Matt.
26:26-30; Mark 14:22-26;
1 Cor. 1:23-26). It is the
breaking of bread (Acts 2:42,46)
and a time to give thanks (Luke
22:17,19). It was originally instituted by Jesus (Matt. 26:26-29) on the night
of the Passover meal which was an annual occurrence celebrating the
"passing over" of the angel of death that claimed the
firstborn of every house in Egypt (Exodus
12). The Lord's Supper, or communion, replaces the Passover meal
with the "body and blood" (Mark 14:22-24) of Jesus. It
is to be taken only by believers (1 Cor. 11:23-28). (For
further study see John 6:26-58
and 1 Cor. 11:27-34).
- Compatibilist Free
Will - The doctrine concerning the free will of people which
states that the sinner is only capable of choosing that which is
sinful nature permits him to choose. he is limited by his
sinful nature in the choices he can make.
- A pack or an agreement between two or more parties with stipulations
of rewards and punishments for keeping and/or breaking the covenant.
A religious group that follows a
particular theological system. In the context of Christianity, and
in particular, CARM, it is a group that uses the Bible but distorts
the doctrines that affect salvation sufficiently to cause salvation
to be unattainable
- The righteous judgment of God upon those who have not trusted in
Christ for the forgiveness of their sins.
- Deism -
The belief that God exists but is not
involved in the world. It maintains that God created all things and
set the universe in motion and is no longer involved in its
- Death -
used in different senses in the Bible. it means physical death
as well as spiritual death. the latter being separation from
- Depravity -
Moral corruption, a state of
corruption or sinfulness. Total depravity is the teaching that sin
has touched all aspects of the human: body, soul, spirit, emotions,
Dispensationalism - Dispensationalism says that God uses different means of
administering His will and grace to His people. These different means
coincide with different periods of time. The Scofield Reference Bible says there are seven
dispensations: of innocence, of conscience, of civil government, of
promise, of law, of grace, and of the kingdom.
A set of accepted beliefs held by a
group. In religion, it is the set of true beliefs that define the
parameters of that belief system. Hence, there is true doctrine and
false doctrine relative to each belief set. In Christianity, for
example, a true biblical doctrine is that there is only one God in
- The study of the church.
- Elect, election
- The elect are those called by God to
salvation. This election occurs before the foundation of the world (Eph. 1:4) and is according to
God's will not man's (Rom.
8:29-30; 9:6-23) because
God is sovereign (Rom. 9:11-16).
- The study of end times doctrines. The study of the things
concerning the return of Christ, the millennium, and the new heavens
and new earth.
- Eternal life
- Life everlasting in the presence of God. "This
is eternal life, that they may know Thee the only true God, and Jesus
Christ, whom Thou has sent" (John 17:3).
Security - The doctrine that
salvation cannot be lost. Since it is not gained by anything we do,
it cannot be lost by anything we do. This does not mean that we can
sin all we want (Rom. 6:1-2) because we have been
freed from sin and are set apart for holy use (1 Thess. 4:7).
The theory that all living things on earth evolved from a single
source and driven by genetic mutation and natural selection gave
rise to all the various life forms on earth.
- Faith -
Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of
things not seen" (Heb. 11:1). It is synonymous
with trust. It is a divine gift (Rom. 12:3) and comes by
hearing the Word of God (Rom.
10:17). It is the means by which the grace of God is accounted to
the believer who trusts in the work of Jesus on the cross (Eph. 2:8).
- The first of the mother's offspring. It stands
figuratively for that which is most excellent. The firstborn male of
the family carried certain familial rites and privileges (Gen. 27:1-29;
48:13-14) and was given a
double portion of the inheritance (Deut. 21:17). It is
a transferable title. Compare
Jer. 31:9 with
- Forgiveness -
- Free Will -
Freedom of self determination and
action independent of external causes.
- God -
The supreme being of the universe. He is the
creator of all things (Isaiah
44:24). He alone is God (Isaiah 45:21,22;
47:8). There have never
been any Gods before Him nor will there be any after Him (Isaiah 43:10).
The Gospel is the good news that we have
forgiveness of sins through Jesus. Specifically, the gospel is
defined by Paul in 1 Cor. 15:1-4: "Now
I make known to you, brethren, the gospel which I preached to you, which
also you received, in which also you stand, by which also you are saved,
if you hold fast the word which I preached to you, unless you believed in
vain. For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received,
that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was
buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the
- The unmerited favor of God.
Harmatiology - The study of the effects of sin upon man
in the world.
- Hell -
Hell is the future place of eternal punishment of
the damned including the devil and his fallen angels. There are
several words rendered as Hell: Hades - A Greek word. It is the
place of the dead, the location of the person between death and
resurrection. (See Matt. 11:23;
1 Cor. 15:55;
- A doctrinal view that deviates from the truth, a
false teaching. We are warned against it in
Acts 20:29-32 and
Phil. 3:2. Heresies include
teachings that Jesus is not God and that the Holy Spirit is not a person (Jehovah's Witnesses,
The Way International), that men may become
gods (Mormonism), that there is more than one
God (Mormonism), that Jesus lost His divinity in hell and finished the
atonement there, and that good works are necessary for salvation (all
cults say this), to name a few.
- Holy Spirit,
The - The third person of the
Godhead. He is completely God. He is called God (Acts
5:3-4), has a will (1 Cor.
12:11), speaks (Acts 8:29;
13:2), and knows all things (John 14:17). He is all powerful (Luke 1:35) and is everywhere (Psalm 139:7-13).
- Hypostatic Union
- The doctrine that Christ has two natures: divine and human.
these two natures are united in one person, Jesus.
- The divine attribute of unchangeableness. God
said in Exodus 3:14, "I AM that I AM," signifying His eternal
sameness and His sovereignty. He cannot change His moral character, His
love, His omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence, etc. God is "From
everlasting to everlasting," (Psalm 90:2).
To reckon to someone the blessing,
curse, debt, etc. of another. Adam's sin is imputed to all people (Rom.
5:12-21), therefore, we are all guilty before God. Our sins were put
upon, imputed, to Jesus on the cross where He became sin on our behalf (2 Cor. 5:21) and died with them (Isaiah 53:4-6).
- The addition of human nature to the nature of
God the second person of the Trinity. It is where God became a man (John 1:1,14;
- Judgment -
Condemnation. There are several judgments: the
judgment of the believer's sins (John 5:24),
the judgment of the believer's self (1 Cor. 11:31-32), the
judgment of the believer's works (2
Cor. 5:10), the judgment of the nations (Matt. 25:31-46), and the
judgment of the wicked (Rev.
- Justice -
The due reward or punishment for an act. Justice
is getting what is deserved. God is merciful but He is also just (Deut. 32:4 - righteous)
and must punish sin. In the grace of God, justice fell upon His Son
so that mercy would fall upon us.
Justification - To justify
means to declare legally righteous.
The Law is God's instructions concerning the
moral, social, and spiritual behavior of His people found in the
first five books of the Bible. The Law is the very reflection of the
nature of God because God speaks out of the abundance of what is in
Him. Therefore, since God is pure, the Law is pure. Since God is
holy, the Law is holy. The Law consists of the 10 commandments (Exodus 20),
rules for social life (Exodus 21
- 23), and rules for the
worship of God (Exodus 25 -
- Libertarian Free
Will - The teaching regarding free will that the sinner is
capable of acting and choosing without the limitations of his sinful
- Mercy -
Mercy is the act of not administering justice
when that justice is punitive. Because of our sinfulness we deserve
death and eternal separation from God (Rom. 6:23;
Isaiah 59:2), but
God provided an atonement for sin and through it shows us mercy.
That is, He does not deliver to the Christian the natural
consequence of his sin which is damnation.
- The belief that there is only one God in all
places at all times. There were none before God and there will be
none after Him. Monotheism is the teaching of the Bible (Isaiah
1 Cor. 8:5-6;
The belief that all of human experience can be described through
natural law. It asserts that biological evolution is true and
that there are no supernatural realities.
- Open Theism
- The position that God does not know all of the future free will
choices of people and that God can make mistakes, take risks, and
- Original Sin
- This is a term used to describe the effect of
Adam's sin on his descendants (Rom. 5:12-23).
Specifically, it is our inheritance of a sinful nature from Adam. The
sinful nature originated with Adam and is passed down from parent to
child. We are by nature children of wrath (Eph. 2:3).
- The belief that the universe is
contained within God. The universe is a part of God, but not
all of God
- Pantheism -
This is an identification of the
universe with God. With this view there is a blurring of the
distinction between the Creator and the creation as well as an
attack upon the personality and nature of God. Pantheism tends to
equate God with the process of the universe and states that the
universe is God and God is the universe.
- The study of the Holy Spirit, His
person, works, relation to the Father and Son, relation to man,
ministry in salvation and sanctification, conviction, and
- The teaching that there are many
Postmillennialism - The belief
that through the preaching of the word of God, the entire world will
be converted to Christianity and this will usher in the kingdom of
Christ. This is when Christ will return.
- Prayer -
A privilege and an obligation of the
Christian where we communicate with God. It is how we convey our
confession (1 John 1:9),
requests (1 Tim. 2:1-3),
intercessions (James 5:15),
thanksgiving (Phil. 4:6),
etc., to our holy God. We are commanded to pray (1 Thess. 5:17).
- The doctrine that God has
foreordained all things which will come to pass yet He is not the
author of sin. He does, however, use sinful things for His glory and
purpose. For example, the crucifixion was brought about by sinful
men who unjustly put Jesus to death (Acts 4:27); yet, in
that death, we are reconciled to God (Rom. 5:10).
This means the turning away of wrath by an offering. It is similar
to expiation but expiation does not carry the nuances involving
wrath. For the Christian the propitiation was the shed blood of
Jesus on the cross. It turned away the wrath of God so that He could
pass "over the sins previously committed," (Rom. 3:25). It was the Father who
sent the Son to be the propitiation (1 John 4:10) for all (1 John 2:2).
The rapture is an
eschatological (end times) event whereupon the return of Christ the true
believers who are "alive and remain shall be caught up together
with them [those who already died as Christians] in the clouds to meet
the Lord in the air..." (1 Thess. 4:17). This is
the time of the resurrection where the Christian receives his
resurrected body. First to receive their new bodies are those who have
died as Christians, and then "those who are alive and
Reconciliation is changing for the better a relationship between two
or more persons. Theologically it refers to the change of
relationship between God and man. We are naturally children of wrath
(Eph. 2:3), and
are at enmity with God (Eph. 2:11-15);
but, "...we were reconciled to God through the death of His
Son..." (Rom. 5:10).
Because of the death of Jesus, the Christian's relationship with God is
changed for the better. We are now able to have fellowship with Him (1 John
1:3) whereas before we could
Redemption means to free someone from bondage. It often involves the
paying of a ransom, a price that makes redemption possible. The
Israelites were redeemed from Egypt. We were redeemed from the power
of sin and the curse of the Law (Gal. 3:13) through Jesus (Rom. 3:24;
Col. 1:14). We were bought with
a price (1 Cor. 6:20;
Regeneration - The act of
God whereby He renews the spiritual condition of a sinner. It is a
spiritual change brought about by the work of the Holy Spirit so that
the person then possesses new life, eternal life. Regeneration is
a change in our moral and spiritual nature where justification is a
change in our relationship with God. Also, sanctification is the
work of God in us to make us more like Jesus. Regeneration is the
beginning of that change. It means to be born again.
To repent means to turn. In the NT repentance means to turn from
sin. We were called by God to turn from sin. In fact, all men
everywhere are commanded by God to repent of their sins (Acts 17:30). God's
longsuffering leads us to repentance (2 Pet. 3:9) as does His
kindness (Rom. 2:4).
A visible manifestation of the word. The bread
and wine in the Lord's Supper are considered sacraments in that they
are visible manifestations of the covenant promise of our Lord: "In
the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, 'This cup is the
new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you.'" (Luke
22:20). "Among the OT sacraments the rites of circumcision
and the Passover were stressed as being the OT counterparts of baptism (Col. 1:10-12) and the Lord's
Supper (1 Cor. 5:7)."
- Salvation -
Salvation is the "saving" of a sinner
from the righteous judgment of God. When someone appeals to God and
seeks forgiveness in Jesus, his sins are forgiven. He is cleansed.
His relationship with God is restored, and he is made a new creature
(2 Cor. 5:17).
All of this is the work of God, not man. Salvation is a free gift (Rom. 6:23).
To sanctify means to be set apart for
a holy use. God has set us apart for the purpose of sanctification
not impurity (1 Thess. 4:7) and being
such we are called to do good works (Eph.
- Second Coming,
The - The Second Coming is a term
applied to the return of Christ. If there is a second coming, it
follows that there must have been a first. The first coming of
Christ was His incarnation when He was born. At the Second Coming of
Christ every eye will see Him (Rev. 1:7) as He descends from
heavens in the clouds (Matt.
24:30; Mark 14:6).
Sin is anything that is contrary to the law or
will of God. For example: if you lie, you have sinned. Why? Because
God has said not to lie (Exodus 20:16). If
you do what God has forbidden, then you have sinned. In addition, if you
do not do what God has commanded, you sin (James 4:17). Either way,
the result is eternal separation from God (Isaiah 59:2). Sin is
lawlessness (1 John 1:3) and unrighteousness (1
John 5:17). Sin leads to bondage (Rom. 6:14-20) and death (Rom. 6:23).
Sola Scriptura -
"only scripture." The teaching that
the Scriptures contain all that is necessary for salvation and
proper living before God.
The study of the doctrine of salvation. It is
derived from the Greek word soterios which means salvation.
Some of the subjects of soteriology are the atonement, imputation, and
Tetragrammaton - This is a term applied to the four Hebrew
letters that make up the name of God as revealed to Moses in
Exodus 3:14. God said to Moses, "And God said to Moses, “I AM
WHO I AM”; and He said, “Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel,
‘I AM has sent me to you.’” YHWH makes up the base of
the verb "to be" from which God designated His own name as
"I AM." In English the letters are basically equivalent
Theodicy - The study of
evil in the world.
A theophany is a visible manifestation of
God usually restricted to the Old Testament. God has appeared in dreams
Gen. 28:12-17), visions (Gen. 15:1-21;
Isaiah 6:1-13), as an
angel (Gen. 16:7-13;
- Total Depravity
- The doctrine that fallen man is
completely touched by sin and that he is completely a sinner. He is
not as bad as he could be, but in all areas of his being, body,
soul, spirit, mind, emotions, etc., he is touched by sin. In that
sense he is totally depraved. Because man is depraved, nothing good
can come out of him (Rom. 3:10-12) and God must
account the righteousness of Christ to him. This righteousness is
obtainable only through faith in Christ and what He did on the cross.
Trinity - The teaching that
God is three persons, Father, son, and Holy Spirit. There are
not three gods, but one God in three persons.
- Worship -
The obligation of God's creation to
give to Him all honor, praise, adoration, and glory due Him because
He is the holy and divine creator. Worship is to be given to God
20:3; Matt. 4:10). Jesus,
being God in flesh (John 1:1,14 ;
Col. 2:9), was worshipped (Matt.
- Wrath -
Biblically, it is the divine judgment
upon sin and sinners. The punishment
is called the wrath of God. It will occur on the final Day of Judgment
when those who are unsaved will incur the wrath of God. It is, though,
presently being released upon the ungodly (Rom.
1:18-32) in the hardening of their hearts. Wrath is described as God's anger (Num.
32:10-13), as stored up (Rom.
2:5-8), and as great (Zech.
7:12). The believer's deliverance from God's wrath is through the
atonement (Rom. 5:8-10). "For
God has not destined us for wrath, but for obtaining salvation through our
Lord Jesus Christ" (1
YHWH - The four letters of
the new Hebrew name of God translated into the equivalent in